Posts Tagged ‘Cubism’
Tags: arts, Cubism, dutch painters, expressionism, Fauvism, German Expressionism, Impressionism, modernism, visual art theory
To understand the emergence of Modernism, the World Fairs that had a great influence on both Design and Art Movements, and movement away from realism.
Dr. Giuntini presents a lecture where she discusses modernity, popular culture, and the influence of the World Fairs.
Art History Unstuffed by Dr. Jeanne S. M. Willette have great Podcasts; they are also available through iTunes and can be listened to on your iPad
“Painting 1: Preface to the Avant-Garde”
There is some historical disagreement over when and where the avant-garde movement in the visual arts began. But it is clear that that the notion that changes in art come from the margins not the center came into existence and began to impact painting by the middle of the nineteenth century. What were the aesthetic and cultural conditions that made the avant-garde possible?
Listen to the Podcast on “Painting 1: Preface to the Avant-Garde”
The Avant-Garde Before the Great War
The decades of the fin-de-siècle period in Europe were fruitful ones, years of innovation and experimentation in painting. “Ism” followed “ism:” Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, German Expressionism, ended only by the Great War. New independent Salons and the burgeoning artist-dealer system provided new opportunities for cutting edged artists to show their work. Working experimentally, these artists developed a new language for a new art for a new century.
Listen to the Podcast The Avant-Garde Before the Great War
Painting 2: Manet to Post-Impressionism
Although the Pre-Raphaelite artists initiated the artistic interest in contemporary urban life and the problems of modern people, the Parisian artists are given credit for learning how to express modernitéin formal terms. The French painters found the seventeenth century Dutch painters important precursors. Inspired by the depiction of ordinary moments of daily life among the middle class in Holland, the emerging avant-garde artists began to rethink, not just how to handle modern content, but also how to use paint itself so that their art could be “of its own time.” The result of this experimentation was an evolution of painting into the twentieth century.
Listen to the Podcast on “Painting 2: Manet to Post-Impressionism”
Cubism (Analytic and Synthetic)
Name: Cubism – Term coined in 1908 by Louis Vauxcelles after hearing Matisse refer to a painting by Braque as nothing but “little cubes.” Like Impressionism and Fauvism, the term was originally derogatory.
Artists: Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Juan Gris, and Raymond Duchamp-Villon.
When: c. 1907-1918.
What: Analytic Cubism (earlier phase of Cubism): subject shown as if seen from several angles simultaneously (traditional perspective is abandoned); fragmented space. Synthetic Cubism (later phase of Cubism): separate elements are brought together in a layered collage look. Lettering sometimes added, as well as real materials (newspapers, labels, etc.).
Subject Matter: Portraits, figure studies, still lifes, landscapes.
Style: Analytic Cubism: dull, muddy, facets of color. Objects and background treated with similar concern. Synthetic Cubism: collage look, stencils, actual materials, usually vibrant color.
Influenced by: Cézanne’s later work; African, Oceanic and Iberian sculpture; Rousseau’s “primitivism.”
Will influence: Orphism, Futurism, Cubo-Futurism, Constructivism, and Art Deco.
“To be pure imitation, painting must make an abstraction from appearances.” – Georges Braque
Analytic Cubism 1910-1912 – Characteristics
1. Analytical Cubism was concerned with breaking down forms analytically into simplified geometric forms across the picture. Objects and figures were broken down into geometric units, usually into two or three shapes by breaking the object down into fragments and then reassemble it.
2. Objects were shown in a prismatic way so that the viewer can see all sides at once.
3. Analytical Cubism rejected Single point perspective and sought to show the object from multiple angles, and in differing lights. It was a conceptual image of the object, rather than an optical image – an intellectual experiment with structure. Objects were displayed not in one place, in one time, in one space, within one light source, but from many vantage points.
4. Structure was paramount and colour was downplayed so that the viewer was not distracted.
5. They limited their palette to monochromatic earth tones and muted silvers, reducing the colour palette to several shades of one or two colours. to better to maintain clarity between the forms’ fragmented planes.
6. These were basically Cézannian colours: ochre’s for the planes, black for the contours and white for the stippling on the surface. From time to time, green will be used, but sparingly.
7. Their limited use of colour avoided any reference to mood or emotion By reducing the palette, Picasso and Braque were able to paint in colours or tones, which were neutral in their associations. Red and blue, for example, are colours with “moods,” yellow might be associated with an object, such as a lemon or the sun. The suggestion of mood or object through colours could lead to ideas of theme or narrative or of symbolism—something Picasso and Braque avoided in order to concentrate to the formal experimentation of their paintings..
8. There was no realistic modelling of figures and objects were represented in space that employed small, tilted planes, set in a shallow space which flattens all surfaces into a single plane.
9. Their subject matter was restricted to the traditional genres of portraiture and still life;
10. Analytical Cubists works were often very similar in appearance and style, but over time, their separate interests showed through. Braque tended to show objects exploding out or pulled apart into fragments, while Picasso rendered them magnetized, with attracting forces compelling elements of the pictorial space into the center of the composition.
Synthetic Cubism (1912 – 1914)
1. The image was built up (synthesized) from new elements and shapes and was a symbolic style of art..
2. Separate elements are brought together in a layered collage look of mixed media. They were the first to use collage in art.
3. They also introduced the use of stencilled lettering as well as real materials (newspapers, labels, etc.).
4. Instead of relying on depicted shapes and forms to represent objects, Picasso and Braque began to explore the use of foreign objects as abstract signs.
5. Braque also began mixing materials such as sand or sawdust with paint to create interesting textures.
6. Other characteristics were a greater use of colour and greater interest in decorative effects.
7. The created a flatter space than with analytical cubism.
8. The paintings were composed of fewer and simpler forms based to a lesser extent on natural objects.
9. In synthetic Cubism the emphasis had shifted from the visual to conceptual. The object is conceived through a synthesis of one’s impressions and the meanings one gives to them. This synthesis does not require the accumulation of all the visual aspects; it can be created by reducing the object’s characteristics to certain essential clues (reduction).
10. Synthetic Cubism is also characterized by ambiguity. Since the painted or sculpted object no longer represents an existing object but is instead an object in itself, a contradiction arises between the two realities: that of the “conventional” object, which exists in one’s mind, and that of the new one, created by the artist, which exists both as the subject of the creation and as the creation itself.